Different persons can have different developmental goals and two, what may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other.
Besides seeking more income, one-way or the other, people also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others.
Similarly, for development, people look at a mix of goals.
The developmental goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.
It is very important to keep in mind that different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.
- For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
- Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income.
- This is based on the understanding that more income means more of all things that human beings need.
- Whatever people like, and should have, they will be able to get with greater income. So, greater income itself is considered to be one important goal.
The income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country.
Per capita income
- Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year.
- It is calculated by dividing the area’s total income by its total population.
In World Development Reports, brought out by the World Bank, this criterion is used in classifying countries.
- Countries with per capita income of US$ 12736 per annum and above in 2013, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US$ 1045 or less are called low-income countries.
- India comes in the category of low middle income countries because its per capita income in 2013 was just US$ 1570 per annum.
- The rich countries, excluding countries of Middle East and certain other small countries, are generally called developed countries.
People not only think of better income but also have goals such as security, respect for others, equal treatment, freedom, etc. in mind. Similarly, when we think of a nation or a region, we may, besides average income, think of other equally important attributes.
The other important criteria to measure the development of any reason are:-
Infant Mortality Rate (or IMR) indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 100 live children born in that particular year.
Literacy Rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.
Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
Money in your pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well. So, income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use. For example, normally, your money cannot buy you a pollution-free environment or ensure that you get unadulterated medicines, unless you can afford to shift to a community that already has all these things. Money may also not be able to protect you from infectious diseases, unless the whole of your community takes preventive steps.
- Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate because it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.
- Similarly, in some states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) functions well. Health and nutritional status of people of such states is certainly likely to be better.
1. HDI stands for Human Development Index. HDI ranks in above table are out of 188 countries in all.
2. Life Expectancy at birth denotes, as the name suggests, average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.
3. Per Capita Income is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared. It is also done in a way so that every dollar would buy the same amount of goods and services in any country.
The present type, and levels, of development are not sustainable.
- Groundwater is an example of renewable resources. These resources are replenished by nature as in the case of crops and plants.
- However, even these resources may be overused. For example, in the case of groundwater, if we use more than what is being replenished by rain then we would be overusing this resource.
- Non-renewable resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use.
Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries; this issue is no longer region or nation specific. Our future is linked together. Sustainability of development is comparatively a new area of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together.